The Big Bang theory has been the centerpiece of modern cosmology for decades despite the fact that it makes no sense whatsoever.

To give some background, here’s the basic history of the Big Bang: in the earlier part of the 20th century a few astronomers supposed that measurements of the redshift of galaxies meant that the “spacetime” of Einstein’s General Relativity was expanding.

Then a Catholic priest was like, “hey maybe that means if we turned the clock back far enough all of matter would be smashed into a single point for some reason.” With that stroke of genius, Big Bang was born. Although most cosmologists at the time thought the Universe was eternal, eventually they learned how to drink the Big Bang kool-aid.

That acceptance was helped along in the 1960s when a faint light was measured to be coming from all directions in the microwave frequency spectrum. Fyzzicists decided that this clearly was the afterglow of the Big Bang explosion.

History of the Big Bang Theory

Ever since then cosmology and astronomy have been dutifully contorted by any means necessary to make sure Big Bang theory fits any new evidence such that fyzzicists can turn around and say, “wow, look how well the Big Bang fits the evidence! It’s basically a Proven Fact™ now.”

The way this new age saayuhnce works is fyzzicists retroactively amend their mathematical “models” for Big Bang whenever they feel like it in order to “predict” the present. I put “predict” in quotes there because Big Bang has enough variable initial conditions which can be tweaked as necessary to fit whatever the present observations are. If you already know the answer to the “prediction,” i.e., what we see presently, then it’s not a prediction. Amazingly, the circular reasoning has gotten so obvious that even some of the fyzzicists are starting to recognize it.

But really these issues are secondary and have no relevance to the irrationality of the proposed explanations. Supposing fyzzicists were in fact making genuine predictions, it wouldn’t make any difference. The main problem with Big Bang is that it claims that an abstract mathematical concept called “spacetime” can “expand.” What could this possibly mean physically?

Literal usage of the verb “expand” requires a physical object with shape capable of doing the expanding in order to rationally understand the meaning of the term. Math concepts do not have shape and so it’s meaningless to assert that they can “expand.” Figurative illustrations of math concepts like as in the above serve no other purpose but to give the layman the impression that there’s an actual explanation somewhere in Big Bang “theory.”

“Expanding spacetime” is nothing but metaphorical speech, like saying psychedelic drugs will “expand your mind.” There’s no object with shape called “mind” which is literally getting bigger in size, just as there’s no object called “spacetime” which is literally getting bigger in size. You need an object like a balloon or bubblegum to conceive of literal expansion! It is simply astounding that this is somehow lost on fyzzicists.

Illustration of Elusive Object Called “Spacetime” Which Is Expanding! Got it?

That alone destroys Big Bang theory. If your proposed explanation invokes processes and entities which cannot even be imagined then it’s impossible to rationally understand the proposal and it clearly has no hope of explaining anything. As such it doesn’t matter what the evidence is because Big Bang suffers instant death before the first telescope is pointed at the sky.

Nevertheless, I still think it’s pertinent to address the alleged evidence. As indicated above, the two main pieces therein are the cosmological redshift of galaxies (supposedly caused by “expanding spacetime”) and the cosmic microwave background radiation.

2MASS Galaxy Redshift Catalog

Above is a map of the data from the 2MASS Galaxy Redshift Catalog. All of those colored little specks represent galaxies surrounding us and our Milky Way galaxy located in the very center in between the blue specks. The “Zone of Avoidance” is the obscuration of our line of sight that occurs when the telescopes are pointed in the direction of the center of the Milky Way. The much greater density of stars in that direction interfere with any more distant extragalactic light sources.

Zone of Avoidance

What the 2MASS image makes clear is the trend of galaxies going from the blue end of the visible color spectrum, through green, yellow, and orange, and finally to red as the galaxies become more distant from us. This is what’s known as the cosmological redshift.

The galaxies do not necessarily literally appear to us through our telescopes to be these colors. This is just a way of showing the trend of increasing redshift with increasing distance (the distance having been measured using a variety of different techniques). Most of the galaxies are redshifting, the blue colored ones are redshifting the least, the dark red ones are redshifting the most.

Redshifting is measured by looking at the frequencies of light originating in these galaxies and comparing them to the expected frequencies. The way this works is the various elements have natural resonant frequencies of light that they emit. For a particular element those frequencies form what’s known as a spectral series, or an emission spectrum. Using spectroscopy it’s possible to identify the spectral signature of an element by analyzing the light originating from it.

Hydrogen Transitions

 

Hydrogen Spectral Series

 

Visible Hydrogen Emission Lines in the Balmer Series

Under the Rope Hypothesis, where it is assumed that all atoms are connected by DNA-like ropes, the electron balls of yarn forming the surface of all atoms are incessantly expanding and contracting (i.e., pumping) in a process that contemporary fyzzicists refer to as atom electron transition, or quantum jumping. The pumping of the electron shell torques the ends of all the ropes extending from an atom, like as if you were to twist the end of a straightened and taut clothesline, and consequently the ropes twist in situ. The twisting of the ropes is the phenomenon known as light.

Gravity, Light, Electricity, and Magnetism Under the Rope Hypothesis

Alternating EM Fields (Mathematics) vs. the Rope (Physics)

A rope naturally satisfies the frequency, wavelength, and amplitude properties of light.

Frequency, Wavelength, and Amplitude

In the case of spectral lines, the atoms comprising an element have multiple layers of electron shells (comprised of gazillions of threads) pulsating at different pump speeds, and these speeds correspond with the various rope wavelengths/frequencies seen in an emission spectrum.

For cosmological redshift fyzzicists use the emission spectrum of hydrogen since it is by far the most abundant element in the Universe. They compare the emission spectrum they see through the telescope to the one we normally see on Earth, and this allows them to calculate the degree of redshifting, i.e., how much longer the wavelengths seen through the telescope are in comparison to the regular wavelengths. “z” in the redshift key of the 2MASS image up above is the difference in wavelength divided by the regular wavelength.

Now here is where things get a little silly…fyzzicists assert that the cosmological redshift isn’t caused by the greater distance but by allegedly greater recessional velocities the farther away the galaxies are from us. In other words, as the galaxies in the 2MASS image go from blue to red the redshift isn’t because they are farther away, but because it just so happens that the farther away they are the faster they are receding from us.

The fyzzicists claim that empty space is an object like bubble gum which can “expand,” and it’s “expanding” into…actually you’re not allowed to ask into what (you’ll be told that’s a “nonsense question,” kind of like their nonsense theory).

The Expanding Universe

Fyzzicists profess that just as if you were to tape pennies to a balloon and blow it up such that the distance between all the pennies is growing, the Universe is like some kind of bubble that is getting bigger (only it’s not like a balloon or a bubble at all because those are objects as opposed to the abstract mathematical concepts that fyzzicists confuse with reality). The farther a galaxy is from us the faster “space itself” is “growing,” and thus the greater the degree of the so-called cosmological redshift.

Note: this is a different mechanism from the Doppler Effect, which happens with light in a similar way that it happens with sound. Just as the ambulance has a higher pitch when it comes toward you and a lower pitch when it drives away, a galaxy moving toward us is blueshifted, whereas one moving away is redshifted. The effects of cosmological redshift and doppler shift combine (along with some other effects) to produce the observed shifting. Because the overall trend is supposedly that the Universe is expanding, most galaxies appear redshifted. In cases where a galaxy happens to be moving toward us, if the doppler blueshift is significant enough it can overcome the effect of the cosmological redshift and produce a net blueshift.

Doppler Shift

This may sound awkward seeing as how fyzzicists seem to be claiming that the expanding Universe forces most galaxies to move away from us in a scenario that appears to be indistinguishable from the Doppler Effect, but what they’re “really” saying is that “space itself” is “expanding.” In that sense the galaxies aren’t moving away from us like in the doppler shift, the “spacetime” between the galaxies is “growing.”

Somehow this “stretches” the “wavelength” of a photon, which is also awkward because when the photon strikes a detector it’s a zero dimensional sizeless shapeless mathematical abstraction. How can a 0D “object” with no physical extent have a “wavelength?” Or exist at all for that matter? There’s simply no way to make sense out of these absurdities.

The Ever Elusive Zero Dimensional Sizeless Shapeless Photon

At any rate, as stated above the link between “expanding spacetime” and Big Bang is that if you turned the clock backwards the Universe would shrink. Turn it back far enough and eventually all of matter smashes into a tiny dimpled pea for some reason. Why couldn’t the Universe bubble oscillate back and forth forever instead? Because fyzzicists say so!

Big Bang Singularity Just After She Blows

One of the more obvious questions here is why would fyzzicists opt for an interpretation of cosmological redshift that entails an expanding Universe? What if light just becomes increasingly redshifted the farther it travels to get to us? Couldn’t we be looking at a more or less steady state Universe where cosmological redshift is purely a factor of distance? Indeed, this has been proposed before, the phenomenon is known as tired light.

And you know what fyzzicists’ response is? They can’t think of any mechanism that would cause light to become redshifted as a result of distance traveled for a photon, therefore we have no choice but to go with “expanding spacetime!”

Hmm, well thankfully the Rope Hypothesis provides a potential mechanism for tired light. Intergalactic ropes binding atoms which are millions or billions of light years away from one another have longer rope wavelengths for the same atomic pump speed applied to a longer rope. Perhaps it’s similar to how a guitar string resonates at a higher note when you place your finger somewhere along the fretboard. A hydrogen atom’s pumping “plucks,” i.e., torques, the end of a rope, and the longer the rope the longer the wavelength for any particular emission line. Unlike the guitar string analogy, however, with the subatomic rope the effect of tired light only starts to become apparent at astronomical distances.

This explanation is nice because it knocks out two birds with one stone. As stated at the beginning, the other piece of evidence allegedly in favor of Big Bang is the cosmic microwave background radiation. There’s apparently a faint signal coming from all directions in the microwave frequency range. Fyzzicists interpret this as the “afterglow” of the Big Bang explosion.

Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation

Several hundred thousand years after all of matter magically appeared from nothing, the Universe bubble cooled down enough for plasma to turn into hydrogen atoms, and this caused the primordial photons to decouple from matter and scatter off of the newly minted electrons (this is when God said, “Let there be light!”). Because the temperature of the Universe bubble was mostly uniform, the microwave background we see today (comprised of these primordial photons) forms what’s known as a blackbody curve.

A blackbody curve plots light intensity (effective amplitude) on the Y-axis and frequency on the X-axis, and the light being measured/plotted is caused by the heat motion of atoms within an object of more or less uniform temperature. These atoms are producing what’s known as thermal radiation. An object placed under increasing heat will glow red, then orange, and so on, towards the blue end of the color spectrum.

Blackbody Curves: Intensity vs. Frequency For Each Temperature Curve

Under the Rope Hypothesis, whereas electron shell pumping is one mechanism by which the ropes are torqued, the atoms in an object also incessantly and chaotically move around in the three degrees of freedom, sliding back and forth in all directions along the interconnecting ropes within the phenomenon known as heat. This torques the ropes in the direction of motion and generates rope torsion, i.e., light, in the form of thermal radiation. The greater the temperature of the object (meaning the faster the atoms are moving), the higher the rope frequencies are that result, just as a faster pump speed results in a higher rope frequency.

If you analyze the frequencies of light emitted by an object like the Sun, and plot them along with the intensity at which each frequency is emitted, you’ll end up with a blackbody curve. The Sun of course is fairly toasty and so the atomic heat motion, along with the atomic pumping, contribute to the range of frequencies at which the ropes extending from the Sun are torquing. Given that there’s many frequencies occurring simultaneously the Sun appears white (or sometimes yellow/orange/red depending on how it’s interacting with Earth’s atmosphere). Interestingly, the frequency most intensely generated by the Sun is that of green.

Blackbody Curves of the Sun and Earth

The Earth also has a blackbody curve although it peaks at a lower frequency than the Sun because the Earth has a much cooler temperature. In fact, even you act as a blackbody which emits thermal radiation that peaks in the infrared range, that’s how government drones can dispatch you with extreme prejudice even if you’re hiding in the dark! Sort of like “Predator” with Arnold Schwarzenegger.

Hasta La Vista

In any case, the cosmic microwave background radiation allegedly generates a blackbody curve due to the uniform temperature distribution that was present a few hundred thousand years after the bang. The primordial photons from this time which continue to wander around the cosmos still bear a blackbody style distribution of frequencies resulting from the thermal radiation in the early Universe, and those frequencies peak in the microwave spectrum because the “wavelengths” of the primordial photons have long since been “stretched” by the continually “expanding spacetime.”

Amazingly, the blackbody curve of the CMBR is the most perfect one ever measured! Fyzzicists love to brag about this. In fact, it’s so close to an ideal blackbody, specifically with root-mean-square deviations not greater than 50 parts per million of the peak brightness of the CMBR spectrum, that it almost looks like made up horseshit.

Incredible! Near Perfect Blackbody Measured By COBE

You see, following the Challenger disaster the gubmint space program needed a comeback, and in 1987 NASA administrator Jim Fletcher declared that COBE (the satellite used to measure the CMBR) was the centerpiece of the agency’s recovery. The fyzz whizzes were under enormous pressure to deliver, and boy did they come through big!

Pierre-Marie Robitaille, a professor of radiology at Ohio State University, and an expert when it comes to instrumentation and signal analysis (he conceived and directed the construction of the world’s first 8 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanner, not exactly a lightweight), leveled what appears to be some seriously damning criticisms against NASA’s COBE and also WMAP space probes which were used to measure the CMBR.

Robitaille argues that the fyzzicists weren’t picking up the faint afterglow of the Big Bang but a microwave signal originating in the Earth’s oceans which was diffracting over the RF shield and leaking into the sensitive detection horn. That would certainly explain why earthshine never generated interference throughout the history of measuring the CMBR: the Earth itself may have been the primary source of the supposed CMBR signal! This would also help explain the near perfect blackbody curve.

Muh CMBR

Whether or not Robitaille’s analysis is accurate, the practically ideal blackbody curve for the CMBR presented as a triumph of modern science sure looks suspiciously like a government agency that badly needed a victory in the eyes of the public. There are no other examples in nature of actual blackbody curves that I’m aware of which look like COBE’s. Here, give me a few gazillion tax dollars and I’ll pull that curve out of my arse too!

That all being said, I wouldn’t be surprised if there is indeed a genuine microwave background signal. If we are to entertain the Rope Hypothesis mechanism for tired light then we should expect that at far enough distances intergalactic ropes extend to the point where their frequencies fall off beyond the infrared and into the microwave spectrum. Whether or not this might produce an apparent blackbody curve, it would certainly explain a faint microwave signal seemingly coming from all directions: the source would be all the stars and galaxies which are tremendously far away and surround what we know as the visible Universe.

EM Spectrum: Visible Light From Violet To Red Then Infrared and Microwave

I took the 2MASS Galaxy Catalog and shrunk it down to generate the redshift map on the right which is surrounded by a layer of infrared and then microwave spectrum redshifted light originating from super distant galaxies. The mock-up is not supposed to be to any scale, it’s just to demonstrate how tired light can explain both the cosmological redshift and the CMBR in one fell swoop. There’s no need to invoke the irrational “expanding spacetime” or exploding dimpled pea of the Big Bang.

While there’s much more that can be said on these topics, for now I want to finish up by briefly outlining an alternative cosmology if we are prepared to toss Big Bang in the loony bin where I think it belongs.

Under the Rope Hypothesis we return to the eternal Universe. All matter and motion are eternal, there never was any beginning nor will there ever be any end. Underlying the Rope Hypothesis configuration and weaving into every single rope and atom is one single continuous loop of Thread. If one could untangle all the ropes and atoms, completely picking apart the Gordian cosmos, the result would look like the image below.

Unlike all the above hydrogen atom scale objects, such as galaxies, stars, planets, and life forms, the Thread did not form at any point, nor will it ever come undone. Likewise, without a beginning the Thread cannot be said to have any age.

The concept of age is predicated on the concept of time, and time is a comparison between a periodic motion and another motion, like as if I count the ticks on my watch in relation to someone running the 10 meter dash. I can’t think of an example of time which doesn’t resolve to a comparison between a bare minimum of two motions. Even the psychological perception of the passage of time resolves to a comparison between neural processes and another motion.

Age then is the concept of time applied to how many counts of a periodic motion transpired from the moment of the formation of a composite object, like a human being, to the present.

The Thread was never created or assembled and therefore it is both ageless and timeless. Although causality and our memory give us the strong impression that the past somehow exists, all there really is in the Rope Hypothesis Universe is one present moment in which all of matter and life are bound into a single cosmic web.

So, why is the Thread here at all, and why this specific interconnected architecture? The rational scientific method begins by assuming existence. In the case of the Rope Hypothesis, the Thread and its motion are the ultimate assumptions, and therefore they cannot themselves be explained since they are used to explain everything else.

Perhaps that’s not very satisfying as an answer but matter and motion being eternal, whether that’s in the Rope Hypothesis proposal or some other theory, is the only rational possibility because the other option, something coming from nothing, inevitably invokes a process whose mechanism cannot be shown in a movie or rationally understood.

Beyond Big Bang failing on account of the irrationality of treating “spacetime” as if it were an object when it’s an abstract mathematical concept by definition (this being an example of the Fallacy of Reification, a.k.a the Fallacy of Hypostatization or the Fallacy of Misplaced Concreteness), insofar as some versions of the proposal allege the possibility of something coming from nothing, here too Big Bang fails to qualify as an actual explanation because such a mechanism cannot be imagined.

Consequently, the Big Bang “theory” is not a valid theory of science, nor does it enlighten us as to any possible explanation for the two main lines of evidence, the cosmological redshift and the CMBR, which are supposed to act as its veritable “proof.”

The fyzzicists will never let go of this ridiculous idea. There is no possible way to reform the system or “change physics from the inside.”

In the 21st century it is high time that independent thinkers break all ties to academia and begin forming our own parallel system of scientific development and achievement.